Recent events in Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica have brought the debate about the merits or demerits of dance-hall music back into the public space. A situation surrounding the performance of a top female artist of Trinidadian heritage created a public furor between the country’s government and opposition in the Trinidad parliament (Lord 2010). The brouhaha developed over the appropriateness of a song she sang in which it was alleged that she used expletives to an audience that included minors (Douglas 20 I 0). The Parliamentary opposition also charged the government minister concerned with a ‘misuse of public funds ‘in sponsoring the event because the values communicated in the songs were not healthy in the that they promoted alcohol abuse and sexual laxity (Alexander 20 J 0).
At the end of the heated debate, the Opposition charged that the government minister responsible for the show had misled parliament concerning the use of obscene language and called for the minister concerned to be brought before the Privilege’s committee of Parliament for the offense. The Speaker of the House of Parliament upheld the charge and the minister was sent before the said committee to defend himself (Douglas 2010). This event serve to demonstrate the far-reaching impact of dance-hall music in Trinidad. Additionally, there has been a significant and worrisome increase in the murder rate in Trinidad in the last decade. The large majority of victims are those identified as Afro-Trinidadian youth from ghetto areas who subscribe to the gangland culture and lifestyle promoted by hip-hop and more recently some Dance-hall music. This has also gotten the attention of the authorities and numerous attempts have been made to lure these youth away from this culture of illicit drugs, modified cars, multiple sex partners, bling, violence and guns (Newsday, December 2, 2010; Taylor & Taylor 2007). However, the efforts of the State have had minimal effect in assuaging the assaults on young Afro-Trinidadian youth.
In exasperation and anxiety, the government of Trinidad and Tobago has recently tabled a
Bill in parliament to make gangs and gang membership illegal (Newsday, December 2, 2010). There are also attempts afoot to set up courts to deal exclusively with arms and arms-related offenses that have become so regular and commonplace that they threaten to overwhelm an already pressurized judicial system.
This genre of music has manifested even greater import since most of their creators come from the very socio-economic bracket and subcultures of their most loyal fans. As a result, these fans identify with their songs as reflecting who they are, where they live, and the oppression and disenfranchise-ment they feel (Nuttal2009). Relatedly, Peterson et aJ. (2007, 1158) argue that the “prevalent social themes in rap music videos include economic deprivation, racial injustice, social isolation, dysfunctional families, violence, hopelessness, pain and struggle for survival.” In addition, they also see this music as a kind of empowerment or re-enfranchisement via complex relations with drugs, sex, money and guns (Iwamoto, Creswell & Caldwell 2007; Orlando 2002).
In Jamaica, songs by the two famed Dancehall artistes (Vybz Kartel and Movado) have triggered turf wars and borderlines between members of one community identified as Gaza and the other as Gully (Boyne 2009). This was not confined to Jamaica as Trinidadian youth who followed these artistes and identified with one or the other entered into violent confrontations among themselves. The situation between two neighboring schools became so bad that the Ministry of Education in Trinidad had to intervene and provide police escorts and special buses to get students to and from school safely. Previously these two secondary schools had coexisted side by side for years without violent confrontations. But since some students of one school identified themselves as Gaza and the other school as Gully- any student from the neighboring school was identified as an enemy and vice versa.
Many youth identify with the artistes, many of whom rose from the ranks of poverty and ghetto lifestyles or those of the underprivileged to virtual stardom (wamoto, Creswell & Caldwell 2007). In essence, they view these artistes as role models or prophets who license and liberate them and their behaviours via their music (Baker & Bor 2008,285). In that context, the attitudes, values and behaviours of these artistes are closely watched and imitated. These include sexual behaviours or messages about sexuality, dress, lifestyles and fashion as well as attitudes toward alcohol and illegal drug use and turf or status related violence (Primack et al. 2007). These issues bring into the discourse the underlying principles of the psychology of adolescence such as identity development, media influences, values idealization, modeling and risk-taking behaviours. The extent to which deviant behaviours are facilitated, reinforced or inspired by Dancehall and Hip-hop music is worthy of investigation and deliberation (wamoto, Creswell & Caldwell 2007). Such queries are not farfetched given the importance of music in the life of developing adolescent and the role it plays in shaping their values and perceptions of life and living (Baker and Bor 2008).
Thus, main purpose of this paper is to attempt to assess the impact of dancehall music on the behaviour and perceptions of adolescent and youth. More specifically, the paper will seek to determine the extent to which Trinidadian adolescents endorse dancehall and hip-hop music as favorites and the consequences of such endorsements- in particular sexuality and
violent perceptions and behaviours.
Portrayals of Violence in Dance-hall and Hip-hop Music Genres
Interestingly, researchers Primack et al. (2008) found that songs with degrading sexual references tended to have more references to weapon carrying and violence. For example, Jamaican Dancehall artiste Movado sings in the chorus of a song entitled- Squeeze Breast, “She say she wan me squeeze her breast dem like the trigger of my gwl.” Relatedly, some of the violence projected in this genre included misogynistic themes. On the latter point, researchers found that university students who viewed or listened to music with such themes were more likely to choose an assaultive story to show to a female peer (Baker & Bor 2008).
This revealed that the participants who were exposed to sexually explicit content with violent under or overtones were primed to behave in a certain way. The study did not reveal the extent to which participants felt that their choices were conscious or unconscious ones. In this vein, Fuller & Damico (2008) fowled that although youth would readily admit that the songs were violent in tone and content they were quite naive to the potential harm on their individual psyche and behaviour. Generally, they succumbed to the third person effect -the idea the music would impact others negatively and not them.
Developing adolescents also see themselves as ‘invincible’ and ‘ immune’ to physical harm and danger- psychological positions which make them more vulnerable to the said dangers (Cobb 2007). In the song, Badda Dan Dem, another Jamaican Dancehall artist, Vybz Kartel writes: “GWl shot mek yuh fall like the bridge ova London, when it kick yuh like Vandam.” Baker and Bor(2008) argue that rap music is associated with antisocial behaviour, anger and violence. However, given their stage of cognitive development, adolescents listening to such lyrics would more likely believe that others would die at their hands and not the other way around (Steinberg 2008).
Due to this way of thinking , they succumb to what developmental psychologists call the personal fable where they feel that nothing bad or fatal could befall them (Cobb 2007). Such lyrics and violent demonstrations only serve to reinforce the view that they are invincible and especially so when in possession of a gwl (Taylor & Taylor 2007).
Impact of Violence in Dance-hall Music on Youth
Fifty Cent also has pictures of two large guns on his twitter page: one with a silencer and the other without. This famed rapper has 3.8 million followers on twitter (Whitehouse 20 11). In effect he links his image and fame with guns – it is therefore not too difficult to perceive that he is trying to represent guns as cool, effective and essential. By the same token, he makes no bones about the fact that he is an ex-drug pusher who has swiveled multiple gunshot wounds. The latter claim makes him an instant hero among minority groups and youth from depressed areas who identify such experiences as heroic in nature. Fifty Cent, became famed for what is termed gangsta rap- a strain of rap music that dealt with violence, thuggery, gang life and the uncut day to day experiences of the dispossessed (Taylor & Taylor 2007). Similarly, the kings of Dance-hall music might also be perceived as instigators of violence through their music lyrics and unagery.
In Trinidad, there have been large numbers of murders that are gang-related. Most gangs fashioned their lives by the lyrics of some Dancehall or Gangstar rap artistes who glorifies illegal gun use and possession. Some artistes even chronicle murders in their songs and promote violence as the path to power and the cure for disaffection in any form (Southe 2008). One gang even went by the name G-Unit (short for Gorrilla Unit) after the clothing brand of megastar Gangsta rapper Fifty-Cent. Writing in the Newsday, December 22, 2008, Indarjit Seuraj reports that the year 2008 was one of the bloodiest years in the Trinidad’s history with over 500 murders 70% of which were identified as gang related. Seuraj noted that gang rivalry had reached fever pitch after the killing of notorious “G-Unit” leader Kerwin “Fresh” Phillip over a year prior to publication of the article (Newsday, December 22,2008).
Others gangs in Trinidad portrayed themselves as either Gaza or Gully (rival territories in Jamaica) with mottos such as, “Gangsta for life.” Identification with either Gaza or Gully means that anyone belonging to the other gang is your mortal enemy to be annihilated at any given opportunity. This mentality has led to inter and intra-community borderlines in both Trinidad and Tobago. Borderlines have even been drawn within and between schools along the Gaza and Gully distinctions as explained earlier. Wittingly or unwittingly crossing over into ‘enemy territory ‘ can lead to beatings and in many cases have led to fatalities (Seuraj 2008). Boyne (2009) captures the sanle issues in telling detail showing that when it comes to violence and murders among lower SES groups Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago mirror each other.
Boyne (2009) argues that while middle and upper class Jamaican youth enjoy the music of both artistes, youth in the depressed areas fight, maim and murder each other-fuelled by the Gaza and Gully distinctions. Although Boyne (2009) labelled such dancehall music as ‘negative dancehall music,” he further argues that the artistes Vybz Kartel (Gaza) and Movado (Gully) promote and legitimize a subculture so violence and aggression through their music. Boyne (2009) also views Kartel and Mavado as the “reigning kings of badmanism and gangsterism.” These kings have very loyal subjects who not only view the world through their lyrics but also strive to live by them.
According to Bakagiannis and Tarrant (2006, 139), several studies have established that musical preferences are an important part of social identity and the “basis for social comparison and self-evaluation.” Pete Nuttall (2009) further argues that the consumption of music can lead not only to identification but also empowerment or social inclusion within the adolescent peer group. Thus, the manner in which these genres of music canvass the masses of the underprivileged and others is indicative of peer group identity formation and bonding (Bakagiannis & Tarrant 2006; Nurta1l2009) and song that best characterized their personality. A trained research assistant administered the questionnaire.
Since this study was largely exploratory in nature, analyses of frequency distributions were chiefly used. These analyses included overall gender and ethnicity differences in frequency of engagement with the genres of music in the study; preference for one music type or both; each music genre’s influence on perception of sexual behaviour; each music genre’s influence on actual sexual behaviour; participants involvement in violent behaviour (fighting) and the frequency of this behaviour as well as the use of obscene language.
INSTAGRAM/ How This Social App Is Begetting Comedians
LAGOS STATE – NIGERIA, Saturday February 22, 2020/www.gbafrica.net/ – 10, 15 years ago, no one would have believed that there would be a trend called “Instagram Comedians” who would sweep through the industry like a sandstorm in the north. But it did happen and we all but have social media to thank for this liberalization.
So it was that about the time the standup comedy industry in Nigeria began to gather momentum, one was not well regarded as having become mainstream if you are yet to feature in Opa Williams’ Nite of a Thousand Laugh; the standup comedy show that was the darling of the industry then. The shows were held mostly in Lagos, with the organizers moving to some other places like Port Harcourt, Enugu, Owerri, Abuja etc. After each show, the recorded version of how the event went was then mass produced and sold in the market, for comedy lovers who can’t afford to make it down to the venue to watch in the comfort of their homes.
It was this platform that birthed the likes of Basket Mouth, Okey Bakassi, Tee A, Omo Baba Number 1, Koffi, Julius Agwu, I Go Die, Gordons, Buchi, Dan De Humorous, Maleke, I Go Save, Bovi, Teju Babyface and numerous other stars that emerged within that period. AY was also to break out with AY Live, featuring a newer school of comedians, while Julius Agwu tried but could not sustain his Crack Ya Ribs show. Basket Mouth floated Lord of the Ribs and these competitions all but made Opa Williams to step aside, in frustration, at the proliferation of standup comedy shows.
What was the matter with Opa? One would ask. Opa was simply suffering from monopoly syndrome. He wanted it to be only him that would own such platforms. That was why he couldn’t stand to measure up with the newcomers and had to leave the scene. But we have Opa Williams to thank for Nigeria’s huge achievement in the standup comedy industry. Today’s comedians should jointly honour him for paving the way when it seemed practically impossible to achieve, and now, Nigeria has an avalanche of comedians that are shaking the nation and beyond and we should all but look back in gratitude to Opa for having the courage to start this journey and Nigerian comedians, even at the risk of hackneyed repetition and plagiarism of one another, have not disappointed us in the depth they have reached in mining jokes from the well-pool of Nigeria’s socio-cultural and political occurrences.
In as much as we have established the place of Opa Williams and his Nite of a Thousand Laugh show in their rightful position, it is important to also point out that the proliferation of comedy shows by stars like Julius Agwu, Basket Mouth, AY, Bovi, Akpororo, Ajebo, Ushbebe, and a host of others, was a necessary step towards the growth we have today because, as at then, it was difficult to be a comedian, it was tough to get noticed, it was almost impossible to blow even after several appearances. This was because of the monopoly I talked about in the earlier essay.
Before some of these comedians got on the platform, they had to undergo a series of auditions to sift out the very best for the main day. This saw many dreams die, even when it helped many to survive. Auditions, as far as I am concerned, are not the best ways to fish out talents because there are many talented dudes that are so introverted to the extent that they find it difficult to display on the spot in front of an entertainment-hungry audience who are impatient with upcoming entertainers. So going through such a process then, saw many would be stars fall back because they couldn’t survive the harsh judgments that come with our styles of auditions here.
What social media did was to liberalise the platform, creating wider avenues for more and more talented people to get noticed. So in the roll call of comedians who exploited the agency of social media to get to stardom or fired up their dawdling fame are Seyi Law, Akpororo, Mr Patrick, Charles Okocha, AY, Basket Mouth, Bovi, I Go Save, Elenu and all other older guys in the industry who couldn’t stand aside and watch newbies like Mark Angel and Emmanuella (the impeccable sensation), Klintoncod, Chief Obi, Crazy Clown and his errant son Ade, Xploit Comedy, Williams Uchemba Broda Shaggy, I Go Tuk, Maraji, Lasisi, Mama Tao, Nedu Wazobia, Yawa, Josh 2 Funny, Oluwa Dollarz, Nasty Blaq, Syneytalker, MC Lively, Kbusa Oriental Choir etc, take over the scene without them.
What social media, especially Instagram, did was to move comedy away from the limiting walls of a raised stage and placed it on the face of millions of viewers through their phones, by so doing, millions of subscribers can enjoy comedy, visual comedy, without having to pay too much ticket to access the venue. Stage comedy still plies, but it is no longer our primary source, neither are those Alaba CDs, Instagram has opened the doors for millions of comedians and consumers by putting them on the same space.
There’s no telling how much social media has helped millions of voices to be heard, and when we thought we have heard the best of our jokes, our Instagram guys came around with raw, crunchy and refined jokes from Nigeria natural comedy reserve.
The future just began.
(Written By: Ifesinachi Nwadike)
Government Determined To Do More For Creative Arts – Akufo-Addo
ACCRA, GHANA, February 22nd, 2020/www.gbafrica.net/ President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo has stated that his government is still committed to improving the creative arts industry in Ghana.
He made this known at the 2020 State of the Nation Address (SoNA) on Thursday when he touted some of his government’s achievements in the sector.
In December 2019, the President inaugurated the National Film Authority (NFA) and sworn in members of its governing board with the aim of putting the Ghana’s film industry on the global maps.
The Chairman of the NFA is David Dontoh. Other members include Juliet Yaa Asantewaa Asante, Executive Secretary of NFA; Yaa Attafua, a representative of the Copyright Office nominated by the Attorney-General & Minister of Justice; Josephine Ohene-Osei of the Ministry of Tourism, Arts & Culture; Dora Darkwa-Mensah of the Ministry of Communications, Dr. Samuel Anyetel Nai of the National Film Television Institute (NAFTI) and Samuel Fiscian of the Ghana Actors’ Guild.
The rest are Zakaria Abdulai of the Film Producers’ Association of Ghana, Koffi Nartey of the Ghana Academy of Film & Television Arts; Akofa Edjeani of Women In Film & Television, Kofi Ohemeng Owusu of the Audio Visual Rights Owners Association, Rukayatu Naa Ayikaley Ankrah of the Film Distributors & Marketers, Samuel Gyandoh of the Film Crew Association of Ghana, and Ernest Boateng, a nominee of television stations.
NFA is one of government’s measures to support the creative arts.
According to President Akufo-Addo during his address, the creation of the NFA is a step in the right direction to turn around the film industry for economic development.
“We are committed to the industry,” he stated.
“We are commencing the construction of the very first senior high school in Ghana dedicated sole to the development of the creative arts industry. I cut the sod for this construction in Kumasi in December last year, we are determined to do more,” he added.
The President’s State of the Nation Address before Parliament is in accordance with Article 67 of the 1992 Constitution, which requires the President to brief Parliament about the country’s state of affairs.
He spoke on diverse sectors of the economy, including the ‘Year of Return’ programme which provided favourable international media coverage for Ghana and had high-profile international celebrities also visited the country.
Source: Ghana Web
RELIGION/ Does It Impede Economic Development?
In the 500th anniversary of Martin Luther’s 95 theses that propelled the Protestant Reformation, it is timely to recall that the shockwaves were not just confined to Christian doctrinal matters but were central to the rise of industrial capitalism that transformed the whole world. This thesis was set out in the most famous link between religion/ethics and economic development by Max Weber in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, published in 1904. I should like to make the claim that it has relevance in the present day in regard to the development of the Global South. In the introductory chapter, Weber makes some forceful observations that are of considerable importance to the goal of global development: “Only in the West does science exist at a stage of development which we recognize today as valid … A rational chemistry has been absent from all areas of culture except the West … [A] rational, systematic, and specialized pursuit of science, with trained and specialized personnel, has only existed in the West in a sense at all approaching its present dominant place in our culture”
Why these advances took place in Western Europe is what Weber sought to explain and provides the foundational reason as to why capitalism – which so enormously developed productive capacities and capabilities and transformed the world at extraordinary speed – originated among Protestants in Western Europe: “business leaders and owners of capital, as well as the higher grades of skilled labour, and even more the higher technically and commercially trained personnel of modern enterprises, are overwhelmingly Protestant”.
Weber’s thesis was striking and compelling; the rise of capitalism was rooted in Protestant (especially Calvinist) ethics and attendant cultural dispositions that stressed the importance of hard work and wealth creation (for the glory of God) and thriftiness. It was this trinity of factors that fomented a new economic system characterised by accumulation of capital – rather than wasteful expenditure – that financed investment and further expansion of enterprises. Hence, the Protestant ethic engendered the ‘spirit of capitalism’.
Protestantism was a movement of protest against the Catholic Church and the severing of ties with its centralised, hierarchical institutions. Accordingly, primacy began to be accorded to the individual’s relationship with God without recourse to institutions and clergy and it is this that arguably nurtured individual economic and political freedoms. Nascent capitalist enterprises in an increasingly marketised economy originated in initiatives by such individuals; a capitalist class imbued with a Protestant ethic was thus born.
Might this foundational hypothesis of Weber’s provide helpful insights for the present-day developing world? That is to say, those countries and societies that are characterised by a Protestant-type culture offer a more conducive environment for economic development than those that are not. Consider the large tracts of the world where development has been stagnant or sluggish in the post-colonial era. Can we argue that they are characterised by ethics and norms that are decisively at variance with the Protestant work ethic? If so, might the culture and religion of such societies powerfully militate against such an ethic?
The Weberian thesis is that those religions and cultures (Catholicism and even more so, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam) that stress anti-materialism and ‘other-worldliness’ and focus on spiritualism, discourage entrepreneurship and wealth creation, act as a brake on economic development.
A reasonable riposte is that while the Protestant work ethic may well have been a decisive factor in the origins of capitalism in Western Europe that is of little relevance now. Other, non-Protestant societies have also attained high levels of economic development by acquiring requisite institutions and skills. This is indeed true but a rejoinder to this argument is that this has entailed the overcoming or even rejection of their non-productive legacies; in other words such countries and societies, and cultures therein, have markedly changed.
In an edited collection Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, Samuel Huntington makes a striking comparison between South Korea and Ghana: in the early 1960s both had very similar economies and comparable levels of GNP per capita. Thirty years later, South Korea had become the 14thlargest economy in the world with a powerful manufacturing base whereas Ghana had not undergone anything like such a transformation and, accordingly, its GNP per capita was one-fifteenth of South Korea’s. Huntington concludes that “South Koreans valued thrift, investment, hard work, education, organization, and discipline. Ghanaians had different values. In short, cultures count”.
Ronald Inglehart and Christian Wetzel show that the worldviews of people living in rich societies differ systematically from those of people living in low-income societies across a wide range of political, social, and religious norms. The differences run along two basic dimensions: “traditional versus secular-rational values and survival versus self-expression values. The shift from traditional to secular-rational values is linked to the shift from agrarian to industrial societies. Traditional societies emphasize religion, respect for and obedience to authority, and national pride. These characteristics change as societies become more secular and rational”.
The inference here is clear: economic and social development requires a move to more secular and rational values. The question naturally arises as to whether enlightened governments can speed up development by implementing political, social, and religious reforms so as to lessen the ‘drag effect’ of traditional values. And is it possible for high levels of development to proceed without the concomitant move away from traditional values?
International institutions such as the UN and World Bank have neglected to explore the link between religion and development. In stark contrast, W Arthur Lewis argued that some religious codes are more compatible with economic growth than others. If a religion lays stress upon material values, upon work, upon thrift and productive investment, upon honesty in commercial relations, upon experimentation and risk bearing, and upon equality of opportunity, it will be helpful to growth, whereas in so far as it is hostile to these things, it tends to inhibit growth. Given that throughout the world, above all in the Global South, religion is profoundly important to many aspects of society, and strongly moulds people’s lives, the prevalence and intensity of religious belief will, accordingly, have a great impact on the trajectory of society in terms of growth and development.
The decline of religion in modern societies is termed the ‘secularisation thesis’ where economic development and rising living standards lead to a fall in the adherence to religious beliefs and practices. Importantly, if attributes of a religion and attendant cultural norms affect the attitude towards work, saving, investment, propensity to innovate, that is, the workings of an economy, as posited by Weber, then the secularisation thesis argues that the resulting economic and social advancement has a feedback effect on religious belief, that is to say, reduces it. Where a religion militates strongly against rising productivity and innovation, it has a dampening effect on the economy so, in turn, reduces such a feedback on the belief system. This suggests a curious result: cultures and religions that most effectively protect themselves against economic advancement are best able to ensure that their hold on a population is little diluted.
In the absence of rigorous research on this issue, there is nevertheless good reason to think that both the levels of believing and belonging are significantly greater in the Global South than in the developed world. Moreover, the intensity of religious belief is also likely to be greater given its imposition from a very young age. That being so, and in the absence of a secular state, institutions, and laws, religion and its cultural accoutrements permeate every vestige of society and, by so doing, profoundly impact the determinants of development and growth. True, these are strong claims and generalisations but they are worthy of extensive investigation and empirical research – in particular by international development institutions, especially the World Bank and UNDP which have never done this.
Tekno Should Be Bigger Than His Current State
Who else agrees with me? Or am I the only fan of Tekno who thinks he should be bigger than he currently is? Who else feels that Tekno has produced a huge body of work that should easily put him on the same pedestal as Wizkid and Davido but sadly isn’t on that pedestal yet?
I have consciously been following Tekno since 2013 till date and I can vouchsafe that aside Wizkid, Tekno is the next Nigerian artist whose songs can sustain a party for hours without the audience getting bored and calling for a change. Check out “Duro,” “Wash,”, “Pana,” “Diana,” “Rara” and the many other hits he dropped under Ubi Franklin’s Triple MG imprint down to the many fascinating singles he has been dropping “back to back” since he formed his own label – “Woman,” “Agege,” “Better (Hope for Africa)”, “Skeletun,” “Suru” and any other song he is bound to drop; even his biggest traducer would agree that he has put in so much work.
Sadly, dropping hit songs and being a good stage performer is not the only factor that makes an artist popular. They are in fact secondary to the artist’s personal life and how he relates with his fans and other music consumers.
Truth is that Tekno was handled by a poor hand; a hand that may be good in negotiating good business deals that helps them maximize profits but terrible in managing the relationship between an artist and his fans. There were days when stories flew here and there about Tekno’s arrogance and how he snubs the hell out of people, including his legendary disregard of some elderly players in the music industry. His label as at then did little or nothing to make sure that their artist does not go down on that lane where people would begin to yimu and even avoid them entirely.
Yours sincerely has been a victim of Tekno’s uppity lifestyle which meant nothing to me because I am patient enough to regard it as one of the crucibles of young fame, but would others take it as that? Would hurt fans, disappointed potential collaborators, interviewers and lesser successful colleagues count it as such? Would they indulge him? These questions are begging for answers.
These and many more issues are part of the reasons why most of us think that Tekno isn’t enjoying the kind of fame that is commensurate with his outputs so far. Now that he is alone, it behooves on him to form a strong team; a team that would not only be comprised of good producers and sound engineers, but a team that has a manager that knows his onions; a team with a powerful image-maker who would pick Tekno’s brand and rebrand it by breathing a long overdue fresh air into Tekno’s reputation.
But then, I fear that the Tekno we are looking at does not care what anyone thinks. Tekno, from the look of things, is comfortable and does not seem to worry about where he currently is.
What do I even know!
(Written By: Ifesinachi Nwadike/Tush Magazine)
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